Constitutional Implications of Emerging Technologies in Corporate Practices in India

Categories: Journal, JOURNAL
           VOLUME:-9 ISSUE NO:- 9 ,MARCH 20, 2024
             ISSN (ONLINE):- 2584-1106
          Website: www.the lawway with

Constitutional Implications of Emerging Technologies in Corporate Practices in India


Rolin Fernandes

2nd Year LL.B 

IFIM Law School, Bengaluru 



The incorporation of novel technology into business operations in India bears significant constitutional ramifications that intersect with ethical considerations, regulatory frameworks, and fundamental rights. This abstract explores the complex interplay between technological innovation and constitutional ideals, with particular attention on privacy, data protection, equality, and freedom of expression. In the age of data-driven corporate activities, the right to privacy, guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution, becomes crucial. After the Supreme Court’s historic ruling in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) & Anr. v. Union of India (2017), privacy was acknowledged as a basic right, mandating strict data protection laws and regulatory supervision to protect people’s private information.


Furthermore, concerns regarding algorithmic biases, discrimination, and fairness in corporate decision-making processes are raised by the junction of technology and equality under Article 14. The constitutional requirement to guarantee non-discriminatory practices is emphasized by cases like the State of Karnataka v. M.K. Balakrishna (1995), particularly when businesses use AI, machine learning, and big data analytics. Article 19’s guarantee of the freedom of speech and expression applies to corporations as they use social media, digital communication channels, and online platforms. In the context of developing technologies, striking a balance between corporate expression and moral principles and legal requirements—as highlighted in S. Rangarajan v. P. Jagjivan Ram (1989)—becomes imperative.



Global corporate practices have been profoundly altered by emerging technology, which has also changed company structures, industries, and social conventions. The introduction of technologies such as big data analytics, blockchain, and artificial intelligence (AI) presents significant constitutional implications in India, where the corporate landscape is changing quickly. Businesses that use these advances to improve productivity, decision-making, and competitiveness face complicated legal and ethical issues that are entwined with fundamental constitutional ideas. This article examines the consequences of developing technologies on privacy, data protection, equality, and fundamental rights in Indian corporate practices as they relate to the constitution.


Constitutional Framework:

The constitutional framework is essential for protecting individual rights, guaranteeing accountability, and fostering responsible governance in the context of emerging technologies in Indian corporate practices. When evaluating the constitutional implications of technical breakthroughs in the corporate world, the fundamental rights guaranteed in the Constitution serve as a framework.


Right to Privacy (Article 21): As data-driven technologies have proliferated in business operations, the right to privacy has become a crucial concern. The Supreme Court has interpreted Article 21 of the Constitution, which guarantees the right to life and personal liberty, to include the right to privacy. Large-scale data collection, processing, and utilization by corporations necessitates adherence to constitutional requirements of privacy and data protection.


Right to Equality (Article 14):

The incorporation of developing technology like artificial intelligence and algorithms into business decision-making processes raises worries about potential biases and discrimination. Article 14 of the Constitution forbids discrimination based on several factors and ensures equality before the law. Businesses need to make sure that the constitutional rights to equality and non-discrimination are not violated by the use of technology in recruiting, promoting, and allocating resources.


Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32):

People who feel mistreated by companies using new technology have the right to use constitutional remedies to get redress. The Supreme Court can use writs including habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, and quo warranto to uphold fundamental rights, according to Article 32. This acts as a means of holding companies responsible for any transgressions of fundamental rights about the adoption and application of cutting-edge technologies.


Equality and Non-Discrimination:

New technologies can reinforce prejudice and discrimination, especially when it comes to financing, hiring, and resource distribution. The Constitution’s Article 14 does not entertain discrimination based on sex, race, caste, religion, or place of birth and promotes equality before the law. To promote justice and inclusion in corporate activities, corporations must make sure that their use of algorithms and automated decision-making processes does not violate these constitutional obligations.


The intersection of the constitution and emerging technologies in corporate practices in India


  1. Regulatory Compliance and Constitutional Principles:

Ensuring regulatory compliance becomes crucial as cutting-edge technologies like blockchain, artificial intelligence, and big data analytics become ingrained in business processes. Constitutional values—especially those concerning equality, privacy, and freedom—must direct the creation and use of regulatory frameworks. While addressing the particular issues given by emerging technology, regulatory authorities like the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) are vital in establishing standards that are consistent with constitutional ideals.


  1. Data Protection and Privacy:

Large-scale data collection, processing, and storage by corporations gives rise to serious privacy and data protection problems. By creating thorough data protection guidelines and legal frameworks, the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019, aims to allay these worries. Corporations are required to establish strong data protection measures, get informed consent, and respect individuals’ sovereignty over their data to ensure compliance with constitutional standards, including the right to privacy under Article 21.


  1. Algorithmic Bias and Discrimination:

Algorithms and automated decision-making systems can reinforce prejudice and discrimination in the workplace, especially against underrepresented groups. Corporations are required by Article 14 of the Constitution to eliminate algorithmic bias and provide fair and transparent decision-making procedures. Article 14 ensures equality and non-discrimination. Enacting strategies like algorithmic audits, diversifying data collection methods, and engaging stakeholders can assist in resolving these issues and maintaining constitutional values.


  1. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Ethical Considerations:

New technologies present businesses with never-before-seen chances to increase production, profitability, and efficiency. They do, however, also bring up moral conundrums and issues with societal duty. Corporate companies are required to ensure that their technology projects conform with the Directive Principles of State Policy, which establish constitutional ideals like as environmental sustainability and social fairness. It is possible to guarantee that firms respect constitutional ideals and make constructive contributions to society by including CSR initiatives in attempts to innovate technology.


  1. Access to Justice and Redressal Mechanisms:

People who are impacted by business practices employing developing technology should have access to efficient channels for filing complaints and legal recourse. Article 32 of the Constitution provides constitutional remedies that enable people to petition the courts to have their fundamental rights upheld. Enterprises have to set up clear grievance procedures and guarantee responsibility for any unfavourable effects stemming from their utilization of cutting-edge technologies. Ensuring due process and access to justice are crucial elements of maintaining constitutional values in business operations.


  1. Government Oversight and Accountability:

To make sure that corporate actions employing developing technology conform with constitutional values and the public interest, government supervision and accountability procedures are essential. Governmental organizations and regulatory bodies must use their authority wisely, striking a balance between the preservation of individual liberties and constitutional principles and the necessity for innovation and economic expansion. In the context of the Constitution, transparency, accountability, and stakeholder involvement are critical to creating a regulatory climate that encourages ethical business practices. Corporations need to take a comprehensive approach that puts ethical considerations, regulatory compliance, and respect for fundamental rights first when negotiating the junction between the Constitution and evolving technologies.



The corporate sector in India is tasked with navigating the constitutional implications of evolving technology as it fosters innovation and growth. Maintaining the Constitutional values of privacy, equality, and freedom is crucial to making sure business operations serve the larger good of society. Corporations can embrace the revolutionary potential of emerging technology while respecting constitutional principles in the pursuit of progress by embracing ethical standards, regulatory compliance, and responsible governance.



  1. Constitution of India, 1950.
  2. Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019.
  3. Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021.

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