12 years of Nirbhaya case ,has anything changed ? 

Proportion
Categories: Journal, JOURNAL
THE LAWWAY WITH LAWYERS JOURNAL
VOLUME:-7 ISSUE NO:- 7 , FEBRURY 16, 2024
ISSN (ONLINE):- 2584-1106
Website: www.the lawway with lawyers.com
Email: thelawwaywithelawyers@gmail.com

12 years of Nirbhaya case ,has anything changed ? 

Authored by:- Rana Saman

(4th yaear BA.LLB,  Al-ameen college of law)

Abstract 

The issue of rape culture in societies, particularly in countries like India, remains a pervasive and deeply rooted challenge. Despite legislative reforms and high-profile cases like the Nirbhaya incident that prompted legal changes, the prevalence of sexual violence continues. The article highlights post-Nirbhaya legal amendments and subsequent cases, such as the Hathras and Unnao incidents, illustrating the persistent challenges in ensuring women’s safety. It calls for a comprehensive approach, suggesting measures like improving city safety, ensuring workplace and public transportation safety, implementing digital and cybersecurity measures, and proposing legal reforms. The article emphasises the need for societal changes, promoting enthusiastic consent, challenging toxic masculinity, and adopting a more inclusive and intersectional perspective. Recognizing the historical context of rape as a weapon of oppression, the article stresses the importance of listening to survivors, rejecting rape jokes, and engaging in active bystander intervention. It concludes by urging society to be proactive in addressing rape culture, fostering open conversations, and advocating for collective efforts to create a safer and more equitable environment for everyone. 

keywords 

Rape, Nirbhaya, case, legal, year, sections, courts, women, safety, sexual, brutal. 

INTRODUCTION 

A country like India who faced approx 200 years of cruelty , exploitation and salevry and got independence 77 years ago . Lots of law has been formed for every society and community even for individuals , but the question is are we really free ? Do we have freedom to move around freely ? Lots of questions are unanswerable logically but at least we can keep on asking questions until or unless every woman or man is safe in this country . Talking about women safety in our country women are not safe outside nor at home . So what is the point of all these women empowernment schemes ?

According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), India reported 4,45,256 rape cases in 2022 a terrable data which is approximate 4% increase from 2020. This is an average of three rape cases per day, or about 87 cases per day.States like Rajasthan, delhi , Haryana , Uttar pradesh still have large numbers gender based crimes which includes specially women. 

The Nirbhaya Case 

Fact of the case 

On the chilly evening of December 16, 2012, a 23-year-old woman and her companion attended a movie, concluding their evening around 8:30 pm. Opting for an auto, they arrived at the Munirka bus stand, where they boarded a chartered bus en route to Dwarka, its white exterior concealing the impending horrors. Inside the bus, six individuals were already present when, suddenly, the lights plunged into darkness. The atmosphere turned ominous as three men directed abusive language towards the woman’s companion, sparking a heated altercation that escalated to a brutal assault with an iron rod, inflicting grave injuries. 

In the wake of the altercation, the assailants callously robbed the traumatized couple before subjecting the woman to a horrifying sequence of brutal rapes, each assailant taking turns. The victim endured both unnatural sexual acts and sustained severe injuries to her private parts due to the vicious use of an iron rod. Following the heinous acts, the perpetrators callously stripped the woman of her dignity and belongings, callously discarding both victims naked near National Highway no. 8. 

In a further display of cruelty, the accused attempted to run over the defenceless pair with the bus before making their escape. The incident stands as a harrowing testament to the depths of human depravity and the urgent need for justice and societal change.

Protest for justice 

On 21 December 2012 India woke up with anger and grievance at India Gate and Raisina Hill, the latter being the location of both the Parliament of India and Rashtrapati Bhavan, the official residence of the President of India. Thousands of protesters clashed with police and battled Rapid Action Force units Demonstrators were baton charged. shot with water cannons and tear gas shells, and arrested. 

countless protests took place throughout the country. More than 600 women belonging to various organisations demonstrated in Bangalore. Thousands of people silently marched in Kolkata. Protests occurred online as well on the social networking sites Facebook and WhatsApp, with users replacing their profile images with a black dot symbol. Tens of thousands signed an online petition protesting the incident. 

The scenario of the country was heartbreaking, every protester was screaming for justice, but the three pillars of Indian democracy were silent and had no answer for all the questions people were asking them . 

ISSUES RAISED 

  • Whether the offenders should be punished with life imprisonment or death penalty? 
  • Whether the minor should also be punished for this heinous act or should be sent to juvenile home? 
  • Whether the scope of Section 375 should be expanded? ● Whether the rape laws present in the IPC should amended for good? 

PETITIONERs ARGUMENT

The petitioner asserts that the case, having undergone a robust trial in the subordinate court, witnessed a parallel affirmation of the judgement by the High Court upon the respondent’s appeal. Pursuant to Article 137, the learned counsel representing the accused sought recourse in the Supreme Court through a review petition, contending that the judgement was marred by errors of fact. In an attempt to introduce a defence highlighting the absence of the offenders at the crime scene and disputing any link between the perpetrators and the crime, the petitioner’s assertions were dismissed by the court, which relied on the substantiated documents and proofs submitted by the state. 

Subsequently, the counsel pursued a Curative Petition, seeking relief for the aggrieved party even post the final judgement. However, the Supreme Court, guided by considerations for the nation’s welfare, the imperative to deter future crimes, and the preservation of judicial integrity, rejected the plea. The final recourse employed was a Mercy Petition, filed before the President of India, who possesses the authority to reprieve, respite, or remit a sentence pronounced by the Apex Court. Upholding the gravity of the situation in the interest of the nation, the President concurred with the death sentence pronounced by the Supreme Court, following due consultation with the Council of Ministers. 

JUDGMENT 

A consensus among a three-judge bench concluded that the actions of the accused warranted no sympathy. Sending a resolute message, the court deemed the heinous crime a rarest of rare cases deserving of the death penalty, asserting that the diabolical act had profoundly shaken the collective conscience of society. The Supreme Court, relying on DNA identification, fingertips, witness testimonies, and odontology, established the accused’s presence in the bus and their active participation in the crime. 

The bench, expressing dismay, remarked on the casual and devilish treatment inflicted upon the victim, deeming it beyond human comprehension. By confirming the death sentence for the four convicts in the Nirbhaya gangrape and murder case, the Supreme Court dispensed justice to the victim’s family and women across the nation. The court characterized the crime as the rarest of rapes, a brutal and barbaric attack on the 23-year-old paramedic student,

Jyoti Singh, emphasizing that the perpetrators treated her as an object of enjoyment, subjecting her to the utmost sexual exploitation. 

In a unanimous verdict, the three-judge bench upheld the Delhi High Court’s decision, which had concurred with the trial court’s judgement. Mukesh (29), Pawan (22), Vinay Sharma (23), and Akshay Kumar Singh (31) were executed by hanging for the brutality they displayed against a woman. The bench justified the death sentence, citing that the crime surpassed the ‘rarest-of-rare’ threshold. Notably, the fifth accused, a minor at the time of the incident, was not tried and was sent to a correctional home for three years. 

After December 2012 

A notable legislative change emerged in the form of the Criminal Amendment Act of 2013, bringing significant amendments to Section 375 and introducing Sections 354A, 354B, 354C, and 354D. This reform expanded the definition of rape, originally limited to sexual intercourse, to encompass a broader scope, now including any involuntary and forceful penetration into a woman’s body parts without her consent. This amendment reflected a more comprehensive understanding of the crime, incorporating the initial stages of rape within its legal framework. 

The impetus behind these legal modifications, particularly in the realm of women’s protection, can be traced back to the recommendations put forth by the Justice Verma Committee. Convened to expedite trials and establish stringent penalties for perpetrators, the committee’s formation was prompted by the horrific Nirbhaya case, underscoring the urgency for legal reforms to address and prevent such heinous acts against women. 

AFTERMATH OF NIRBHAYA CASE 

The case proved to be a horrible dream for the country and because of that so many changes we saw in our legal systems . such as ; 

1.The Criminal Law Amendment Act of 2013, commonly known as the Anti-rape Act, brought about substantial changes in the legal landscape.

This legislative reform expanded the ambit of rape by incorporating new offenses such as stalking, acid attacks, and voyeurism into its definition. The mere threat of rape was recognized as a criminal act, subjecting the perpetrator to legal consequences. 

Furthermore, the minimum sentence for rape was elevated from seven to ten years, acknowledging the surge in rape cases. In instances leading to the victim’s death or a vegetative state, the minimum sentence was heightened to 20 years. 

2.A pivotal shift in legal perspective was observed regarding the victim’s character, deeming it irrelevant in rape cases and ensuring that it does not influence the imposition of punishment. 

Recognizing a systemic flaw highlighted by the involvement of a juvenile offender in the Nirbhaya case, the age threshold for trying individuals as adults for violent crimes like rape was revised from 18 to 16 years under the Juvenile Justice Act of 2015. 

The amendment also addressed procedural aspects, emphasising the mandatory registration of complaints and medical examinations. It stipulated that any officer failing to register a reported rape case or impeding its investigation would be held criminally accountable. 

Additionally, the committee’s recommendations extended to addressing issues related to marital rape and rapes occurring through the commission of void marriages, demonstrating a comprehensive approach to the legal framework surrounding sexual offenses. 

The amendments introduced in the Indian Penal Code, 1860 

  1. Section 166A was incorporated, delineating the offence of disobedience of the law by a public servant. Post-amendment, this transgression attracts punishment, including rigorous imprisonment ranging from 6 months to 2 years and fines. 
  2. Sections 326A and 326B were introduced to specifically address the heinous crime of acid attacks. The amendment designates acid attacks as a distinct

offence, punishable by a prison term of 10 years, extendable to life imprisonment, or fines, or both. 

  1. Section 354A was added to the legal framework, focusing on sexual harassment and prescribing corresponding penalties. 
  2. Section 354B addresses the offence of compelling a woman to remove her clothes, outlining the legal consequences for such actions. 
  3. Section 354C encompasses the offence of voyeurism, defining it as observing a woman engaged in private acts, including sexual activities, or when her private parts are exposed. 
  4. Section 354D pertains to the offence of stalking, establishing legal provisions to address this intrusive behaviour. 

The age of consent was raised from sixteen to eighteen years, reflecting a heightened legal standard for the ability to give consent. 

The definition of rape underwent expansion, including unconsented penetration of the mouth, urethra, vagina, anus with the penis or other objects, and unconsented application of mouth to vagina, urethra, and anus. 

  1. Section 376(2)(c) was inserted, addressing the offense of rape by personnel of armed forces, acknowledging the unique circumstances surrounding such cases. 
  2. Section 376A was introduced, specifically dealing with rape resulting in death or a vegetative state, prescribing corresponding penalties. 
  3. Section 376D focuses on the crime of gang rape, recognizing its severity and imposing appropriate legal consequences. 

The repetition of offences is punishable by life imprisonment or death, underlining the gravity of serial sexual offences.

Furthermore, employing a trafficked person now attracts penal provisions, contributing to the legal measures against human trafficking. 

Clarification was provided that penetration, for the purpose of rape, extends to any degree, and the absence of physical resistance or other forms of resistance is immaterial for establishing the offense of rape. 

Legislative reform of post Nirbhaya case 

After the Nirbhaya case, the Government of India responded with two significant legislative measures, the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 2013 (CLA 2013) and Guidelines from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), in acknowledgment of widespread public protests across the nation. 

As a third response, the government established One Stop Centres to furnish immediate to long-term care for survivors of Gender-Based Violence (GBV). 

The protesters articulated concerns encompassing inadequate and ineffective security for women, unreliable public transport, shortcomings in the functioning of the police force, which often attributed blame to rape victims and hesitated to register an FIR for crimes against them, and bureaucratic impediments surrounding sexual assault. 

The task of reforming the anti-rape laws was entrusted to the Justice Verma Committee, leading to comprehensive changes in legislation. 

Delhi’s police force saw an influx of female officers, aimed at fostering an environment where women feel comfortable sharing their experiences. 

Security measures were heightened, patrolling increased, and the police force underwent gender sensitization courses to enhance understanding of women’s rights and safety issues. 

Six fast-track courts were instituted specifically for expeditious resolution of rape cases, emphasizing prompt aid to victims. 

Stringent amendments were made to laws against sexual assault, further fortifying legal frameworks.

The case involving a minor accused (17 years old) underscored the necessity for revisiting juvenile laws. 

The post-Nirbhaya era witnessed the creation of a public platform for discussing sexual violence against women, facilitating a discourse that was previously absent. 

Non-compliance with the provision of medico-legal care is now a punishable offence under Section 166B of the Indian Penal Code, pursuant to the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 2013. 

Issue of the article

Is India really changing towards rape culture ? 

India has the largest population in the world yet the violence against women is increasing day by day , also rape is the 4rth most common crime against women. In accordance with the 2021 annual report released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), a total of 31,677 rape cases were formally documented across the nation. This figure signifies an average of 86 cases reported daily, indicating a notable increase compared to the 2020 statistics of 28,046 cases. In the year 2019, 32,033 cases were officially registered. Within the context of the aforementioned 31,677 cases, approximately 89% (28,147 cases) involved perpetrators who were acquainted with the victim. Notably, 10% of the victims were minors, falling below the age of 18, which is the legally recognized age of consent. 

The main question is what kind of amendments is this or what kind of reforms our government is taking because as above mentioned data there are no such changes taking place. 

Recognizing the imperative for continual legal refinement, it is evident that despite successive legal amendments, pervasive crimes against women persist. The symbiotic evolution of both legal doctrines and societal norms is paramount; any disjunction between the two may result in unresolved issues. It is incumbent upon our legal system and society to harmoniously progress,

ensuring a responsive and comprehensive approach that effectively safeguards the rights and well-being of women.” 

Women’s safety remains a controversial and pressing issue in our country. Despite progress in various areas, the concern for the safety of women continues to spark debates and discussions. 

On one hand, there have been efforts to raise awareness about women’s rights and implement laws to protect them. However, on the other hand, incidents of harassment, assault, and violence against women still persist, highlighting the gaps in our societal fabric. 

Challenges include not only the need for stronger law enforcement but also a shift in cultural attitudes towards women. This involves promoting gender equality, challenging stereotypes, and fostering a safe environment where women feel empowered to report incidents without fear of backlash. 

It’s crucial for society to work collaboratively, involving government, law enforcement, and communities, to create a safer environment for women. Education and awareness campaigns play a significant role in shaping a culture that respects and values the safety of women. Ongoing conversations and collective efforts are essential to address this controversy and work towards creating a safer and more inclusive society for everyone. 

Why Do People Protest ? 

Have you ever thought about why people would have to protest for justice every time something happens like this ? Why do they have to scream for justice ? Maybe countries where the judicial system or Government failed to attempt justice so many times because of that many of these rapists are still roaming outside freely , expecting a massive protest every time they want justice. 

Only protest is a way to make them understand that people are aware of the situation of the country , or they can raise their voice against crime or social injustice. 

Protesting for justice in rape cases is a powerful and necessary way for people to express their concerns and demand change. Here are some reasons why such protests are crucial:

  1. Raise Awareness: Protests bring attention to the issue of sexual violence and help raise awareness among the public. By taking to the streets, people draw attention to the prevalence of rape and the urgent need for justice. 
  2. Demand Accountability: Protests send a strong message to authorities and the legal system, demanding accountability for perpetrators of sexual violence. They emphasise the need for prompt and fair investigations, as well as appropriate legal consequences for those found guilty. 
  3. Pressure for Legal Reforms: Public demonstrations can lead to increased pressure on lawmakers to revisit and improve existing laws related to sexual assault. This may include advocating for stricter penalties, closing legal loopholes, or implementing new legislation to address emerging challenges. 
  4. Support Survivors: Protests provide a platform for survivors to share their stories and find solidarity with others who have experienced similar trauma. It helps break the silence surrounding sexual violence and encourages survivors to speak out without fear of judgment. 
  5. Challenge Societal Norms: Demonstrations against rape contribute to challenging deep-rooted cultural attitudes and norms that perpetuate a culture of silence and victim-blaming. Protests highlight the need for a cultural shift towards consent, respect, and gender equality. 
  6. Influence Media Coverage: Large-scale protests often attract media attention, leading to increased coverage of the issue. This helps in shaping public opinion and creating a sense of urgency for action. 
  7. Foster Community Engagement: Protests create a sense of community engagement and involvement in addressing a critical societal problem. They bring people together, encouraging a collective effort to tackle issues related to sexual violence. 

8.Prompt Institutional Change: Protests can lead to institutional changes within law enforcement agencies and the judicial system. Calls for more

sensitivity, training, and reforms in these institutions may result from sustained public pressure. 

While protests are essential, they are just one part of a comprehensive approach to addressing sexual violence. Sustainable change also involves legislative reforms, educational initiatives, and fostering a culture that prioritises the safety and well-being of all individuals. 

Highlight Cases after nirbhaya 

1.Hathras case 2020 

Fact of the Case 

In Hathras, Uttar Pradesh, a 19-year-old Dalit girl was gang-raped by upper-caste men while cutting grass with her mother at 9:30 a.m. The assailants left her to die in the fields. Despite her mother reporting the incident, police allegedly refused to file a case promptly. After identifying one of the accused, Sandeep Sisodia, an FIR was registered under Section 354 of the Indian Penal Code. The victim, later taken to a local health centre, was referred to Aligarh Muslim University’s Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College. The delayed admission, surpassing the expected travel time, was attributed to the initial police reluctance in filing the FIR. 

According to the victim’s mother, the police forcefully took her daughter’s body, cremating her at 2:30 A.M. The authorities dismissed these allegations, asserting that the cremation was consensual. 

In response to the controversy, the state government established a Special Investigation Team to probe the incident. Widespread protests and criticisms were directed at both the government and the administrative system. Prashant Kumar, the UP ADG, faced backlash for asserting that reports indicated no rape, despite the swab test being conducted over a week after the assault.

Post-mortem findings revealed severe spinal injuries and multiple neck marks, indicative of attempted strangulation. 

Judgment 

In the Hathras gang rape and murder case, the prime accused, Sandeep Sisodia, was sentenced to life imprisonment by an SC/ST Court in Uttar Pradesh. Sisodia was convicted of culpable homicide not amounting to murder and an offence under the SC/ST Act. However, the other three accused were acquitted of all charges. The court emphasized the absence of medical evidence for gang rape and noted inconsistencies in the victim’s statements. The judge stated that the incident had taken a political turn, raising doubts about the victim’s statement. The case gained attention in 2020 due to the forceful cremation of the victim by the Uttar Pradesh Police, sparking public outcry. The victim succumbed to injuries, and the case was later transferred to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). 

2.Unnao rape 2017 

Fact of the case 

The Unnao rape case involves the alleged gang rape of a 17-year-old girl in Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, on June 4, 2017. The accused include Bharatiya Janata Party leader Kuldeep Singh Sengar. Two chargesheets have been filed, implicating Sengar, his brother, three policemen, and five others. The case gained national attention after the victim demonstrated in front of the residence of Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath. Her father died in custody, sparking widespread media coverage. Joint protests ensued with the Kathua rape case. On July 28, 2019, the victim was seriously injured in a truck collision, leading to family deaths. They had reported threats and sought help from the Chief Justice of India, and the Supreme Court accepted the case on July 31, 2019. 

Judgment 

In 2019, Kuldeep Singh Sengar was found guilty of the charges of raping a minor girl in 2017 and conspiring to murder her father in collusion with police

officers in Unnao, India. On December 20, 2019, he received a life sentence and was fined ₹25 lakh, with ₹15 lakh allocated for the state government to cover trial and prosecution expenses. Sengar has subsequently filed an appeal challenging the verdict of the trial court, seeking redress through the high court. 

3.Kathua rape case 

Fact of the case 

The Kathua rape case involved the abduction, gang rape, and murder of an 8-year-old girl, Asifa Bano, by six men and a juvenile, in January 2018 in the Rasana village near Kathua in Jammu and Kashmir, India. A chargesheet for the case was filed, the accused were arrested and the trial began in Kathua on 16 April 2018.The victim belonged to the nomadic Bakarwal community. She disappeared for a week before her body was discovered by the villagers a kilometre away from the village. The incident made national news when charges were filed against eight men in April 2018. The arrests of the accused led to protests by the Panthers Party and other local groups, who sought justice for the victim. A protest in support of the accused men was attended by two ministers from the Bharatiya Janata Party, both of whom later resigned. The gang rape and murder, as well as the support the accused received, sparked widespread outrage in India and world-wide. 

On 10 June 2019, six of the seven defendants were convicted and one acquitted.[18] Three of those convicted were sentenced to life imprisonment and the remaining three to five years. In October 2019, court ordered a First Information Report (FIR) against 6 members of the Special Investigation Team (SIT), which probed the case, for allegedly torturing and coercing witnesses to give false statements. 

Judgment 

On June 10, 2019, a Special Court in Pathankot handed down life sentences to three individuals in connection with the Kathua

rape-murder case. Additionally, three police officers were sentenced to five years in prison for tampering with evidence. Vishal was acquitted due to insufficient evidence, while a juvenile is undergoing trial in a juvenile court. 

Later, on November 10, 2019, the Supreme Court delivered its verdict, finding six out of the seven accused guilty. Sanji Ram, Deepak Khajuria, and Parvesh Kumar received life imprisonment for 25 years, while Tilak Raj, Anand Dutta, and Surender Verma were sentenced to five years in jail for their involvement in destroying evidence. One individual was acquitted in this judgement

Legal reforms government should take ; 1.Improving City Safety: 

(a) Crime Hotspots: Identify and illuminate high-crime areas with cameras and facial recognition technology. Implement automated alerts to notify the police and family in case of potential danger. 

(b) Prevention and Alerts: Provide electric shock devices for self-defence and alert devices using radio frequency or mobile apps for quick assistance. 

(c) Police Presence: Increase police surveillance in the city, addressing the challenges of overworked and under-equipped personnel. 

Enhancing Workplace Safety: 

(d) Mandatory Cameras: Install surveillance cameras in all public and private offices to deter harassment and ensure a safer work environment. 

(e) Communication Registration: Mandate registration of employer and employee mobile phones and emails for official communications, reducing the likelihood of harassment and improving efficiency.

2.Ensuring Public Transportation Safety: 

(a) Safe Routes: Design public transport routes for maximum safety, security, and convenience. 

(b) Community Engagement and Awareness: 

(c) Gender Survey: Conduct a survey to understand female movement, consumption, and communication patterns, informing district policies. 

(d) Public Policing: Encourage public responsibility in crime prevention, both in public spaces and within families. Promote awareness about child abuse, sexual harassment, and provide education on prevention. 

Digital and Cybersecurity Measures: 

(e) Digital Device Protection: Ensure robust digital security (Assurance Level – 3) to prevent privacy violations and potential blackmail. 

(f) Social Media Safeguards: Establish measures to deter harassment and abuse on social media, holding offenders accountable. 

(g) Strengthen Cyber Police: Enhance the tracing and detection capabilities of cyber police to meet international standards. 

3.Legal Measures: 

(a) District Sexual Abuse Crime Court: Establish a dedicated court for sexual abuse cases to ensure a timely and fair judicial process.

(b) Alternative to Death Penalty: Acknowledge that harsher penalties, such as death, do not statistically reduce crime. Focus on prevention and justice through efficient trials to support female victims. 

Changes our societies should have take towards rape culture; 

To tackle the widespread problem of rape culture, our societies need to make big changes. It’s not just about dealing with specific instances of violence but challenging the beliefs and norms that make sexual violence seem normal. We should focus on creating a culture where everyone understands and respects the importance of consent, questions harmful ideas about masculinity, and ensures that all individuals are treated with dignity. It’s about changing how we think, educate, and enforce policies to build societies where everyone feels respected and safe from the harmful impact of rape culture. 

Addressing and Dismantling Rape Culture: 

  1. Promote Enthusiastic Consent: 

Emphasise the importance of freely given consent in all interactions. Encourage active communication and ensure a clear “yes” from everyone involved. 

  1. Challenge Root Causes: 
  2. Speak out against toxic masculinity and the devaluation of women. Reject ideas that associate violence and dominance with strength. Counter victim-blaming narratives and question entitlement to sex. 

4, Redefine Masculinity: 

Reflect on and redefine your understanding of masculinity. Engage in self-reflection, community discussions, and artistic expression to reshape masculine norms with feminist principles.

  1. Stop Victim-Blaming: 

choose language that avoids blaming victims and perpetuating rape culture. Challenge stereotypes in popular culture and media that objectify women. Recognize that clothing, sobriety, and location are not invitations for assault. 

  1. Zero Tolerance Policies: 

Establish and enforce zero-tolerance policies for sexual harassment and violence in all spaces. Leaders should commit to practicing and upholding these policies daily. 

  1. Broaden Understanding: 

Recognize that rape culture extends beyond specific scenarios and includes practices like child marriage and female genital mutilation. Be aware of the factors and myths that contribute to rape culture. 

  1. Intersectional Approach: 

Acknowledge that rape culture affects individuals irrespective of gender identity, sexuality, economic status, race, religion, or age. Challenge restrictive definitions of gender and sexuality to promote inclusivity. 

  1. Know the History: 

Understand the historical use of rape as a weapon of war and oppression. Learn about instances of sexual violence during past and recent conflicts to gain insight into the roots of rape culture. 

  1. Invest in Women: 

Support organisations that empower women, amplify their voices, and advocate for gender equality. Consider donating to initiatives working to end violence against women. 

  1. Listen to Survivors: 

Acknowledge and listen to the experiences of survivors. Avoid victim-blaming language and express belief and support for those who come forward. 

  1. Reject Rape Jokes:

Avoid humor that normalizes sexual violence. Rape jokes trivialize consent violations and make it harder for victims to speak out. 

  1. Get Involved: 

Engage with initiatives addressing violence against women and discriminatory laws. Advocate for gender equality and enforce laws that protect women and girls. 

  1. End Impunity: 

Hold perpetrators accountable through the prosecution of sexual violence cases. Advocate for justice and accountability, challenging any pushback against legal consequences. 

  1. Be an Active Bystander: 

Intervene as an active bystander when witnessing non-consensual or violent behaviour. Offer support to the target, document incidents, create distractions, or make clear statements to perpetrators. 

  1. Educate the Next Generation: 

Challenge gender stereotypes and violent ideals in media, streets, and schools. Create a safe space for children to express themselves and teach the importance of consent from a young age. 

17.Start or Join the Conversation: 

Initiate discussions with family and friends on how to collectively combat and end rape culture in your communities. Encourage open dialogue and continuous awareness. 

CONCLUSION; 

Rape is undoubtedly one of the most heinous crimes, inflicting not only physical and emotional trauma on the individual victim but also causing profound harm to the entire fabric of society. It transcends the boundaries of a personal offence . 

it is an assault on the collective conscience of humanity. To establish an ideal society, it is imperative to eradicate such acts of violence. This requires a profound shift in our mindset, one that rejects any tolerance for such atrocities. It is crucial to create an environment where females

feel secure and respected. Punishing rapists is a critical step in deterring such crimes, as it sends a strong message that society will not tolerate such violations. By actively addressing and condemning rape, we can foster a culture of empathy, understanding, and safety, ultimately paving the way for a better and more harmonious society where individuals can coexist without the constant fear of violence.

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